Evolution of Network from 1G to 5G


First Generation(1G):

  • 1G emerged in 1980s.It contains analog system and popularly known as cell phones.
  •  It introduces mobile technologies such as mobile telephone system (MTS),Advanced mobile telephone system(AMTS),Improved mobile telephone system(IMTS)and push to talk(PTT).
  • It uses analog radio signal which have frequency 150 MHz, Voice call modulation is done using a technique called frequency division multiple access(FDMA).
  • It has low capacity , unreliable handoff, poor voice links and no security at all since voice calls were played back in radio towers making these calls susceptible to unwanted eavesdropping by third parties.

Second Generation (2G):

  • 2G emerged in late 1980s. It uses digital signals for voice transmission and has speed of 64 kbps. 
  • It provides facility of SMS (Short Message Service) and use the bandwidth of 30 to 200 KHz. 
  • Next to 2G, 2.5G system uses packet switched and circuit switched domain and provide data rate up to 144 kbps. E.g. GPRS, CDMA and EDGE

Third Generation (3G):

  • It uses Wide Brand Wireless Network with which clarity is increased.
  •  The data are sent through the technology called Packet Switching. 
  • Voice calls are interpreted through Circuit Switching. 
  • Along with verbal communication it includes data services, access to television/video, new services like Global Roaming. 
  • It operates at a range of 2100MHz and has a bandwidth of 15-20MHz used for High-speed internet service, video chatting.
  • 3G uses Wide Band Voice Channel that is by this the world has been contracted to a little village because a person can contact with other person located in any part of the world and can even send messages too

Fourth Generation (4G):

  • 4G offers a downloading speed of 100Mbps.
  • 4G provides same feature as 3G and additional services like MultiMedia Newspapers, to watch T.V programs with more clarity and send Data much faster than previous generations LTE (Long Term Evolution) is considered as 4G technology.
  •  4G is being developed to accommodate the QoS and rate requirements set by forthcoming applications like wireless broadband access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), video chat, mobile TV, HDTV content, Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), minimal services like voice and data, and other services that utilize bandwidth.

Fifth Generation (5G):


5G is the short for fifth generation, a mobile broadband technology that is in the early stages of works and likely to be in place six to seven years from now. A 5G network will be able to handle 10,000 times more call and data traffic than the current 3G or 4G network.

Data download speeds on 5G networks are likely to be several hundred times more than 4G.


You could download a three-hour high-definition movie on a mobile device in one second. It takes several minutes on a 3G or 4G network and several hours on 2G.

Live gaming and real-time video streaming will be possible without any lags as data transmission happens literally in the blink of an eye. Those annoying video buffering during streaming sessions would disappear.

The global carrier industry association, the GSMA, has put together its view (PDF) of what the future looks like, and like the fabled elephant described by the blind, the description of 5G depends on which bit you grab.

  • 1-10Gbps connections to end points in the field (i.e. not theoretical maximum)
  • 1 millisecond end-to-end round trip delay (latency)
  • 1000x bandwidth per unit area
  • 10-100x number of connected devices
  • (Perception of) 99.999% availability
  • (Perception of) 100% coverage
  • 90% reduction in network energy usage
  • Up to ten year battery life for low power, machine-type devices

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